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Jul 23,  · Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycaemia caused by impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. In this Primer, DeFronzo et al. discuss the. Aug 05,  · The latest fashion news, style tips and show reports from Fashion on Telegraph. In depth analysis, advice, photos and videos. Copy and paste this code into your website. Your Link .


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The original TASER device probes unspool the wire from the cartridge that causes a yaw effect before the dart stabilizes, [27] which made it difficult to penetrate thick clothing, but newer versions X26, C2 use a “shaped pulse” that increases effectiveness in the presence of barriers. The TASER 7 conducted energy device is a two-shot device with increased reliability over legacy products.

The conductive wires spool from the dart when the TASER 7 conducted energy device is fired, instead of spooling from the TASER cartridge which increases stability while in flight and therefore increases accuracy. The spiral darts fly straighter and faster with nearly twice the kinetic energy for better connection to the target and penetration through thicker clothing.

Rapid arc technology with adaptive cross-connection helps enable full incapacitation even at close range. This allows police to maintain a greater distance. A study of use-of-force incidents by the Calgary Police Service conducted by the Canadian Police Research Centre found that the use of the TASER device resulted in fewer injuries than the use of batons or empty hand techniques.

The study found that only pepper spray was a safer intervention option. It is a two-shot device with spiral darts that spool from the dart allowing the probes to fly straighter. The TASER 7 device’s rapid arc technology with adaptive cross connections allows for full incapacitation. Sharp metal projectiles and electricity are in use, so misuse or abuse of the weapon increases the likelihood that serious injury or death may occur.

In addition, the manufacturer has identified other risk factors that may increase the risks of use. Children, pregnant women, the elderly, and very thin individuals are considered at higher risk. Persons with known medical problems, such as heart disease, history of seizure, or have a pacemaker are also at greater risk. Axon also warns that repeated, extended, or continuous exposure to the weapon is not safe.

Because of this, the Police Executive Research Forum says that total exposure should not exceed 15 seconds. There are other circumstances that pose higher secondary risks of serious injury or death, including: [24]. Some TASER device models, particularly those used by police departments , also have a “Drive Stun” capability, where the TASER device is held against the target without firing the projectiles, and is intended to cause pain without incapacitating the target.

This can be done without an air cartridge in place or after an air cartridge has been deployed. Guidelines released in by the U. Department of Justice recommend that use of Drive Stun as a pain compliance technique be avoided. The guidelines state “Using the CEW to achieve pain compliance may have limited effectiveness and, when used repeatedly, may even exacerbate the situation by inducing rage in the subject”.

A study of U. For a scenario that also includes non-violent physical contact, this number is The Drive Stun does not incapacitate a subject but may assist in taking a subject into custody. Amnesty International has expressed particular concern about Drive Stun, noting that “the potential to use TASERs in drive-stun mode—where they are used as ‘pain compliance’ tools when individuals are already effectively in custody—and the capacity to inflict multiple and prolonged shocks, renders the weapons inherently open to abuse”.

Just as the number of agencies deploying TASER conducted energy weapons has continued to increase each year, so too the number of TASER device related “incidents” between law enforcement officers and suspects has been on the rise. Some of the deaths associated with TASER devices have been given a diagnosis of excited delirium , a term for a phenomenon that manifests as a combination of delirium , psychomotor agitation , anxiety , hallucinations , speech disturbances, disorientation , violent and bizarre behavior, insensitivity to pain , elevated body temperature , and increased strength.

The diagnosis of excited delirium has been controversial. Excited delirium is not found in the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ; however.

Tasers are prohibited for civilian ownership in Australia in every state and territory. A weapons permit is required to purchase and own a taser. In Austria, tasers are considered a Category C weapon that can be purchased by any adult Austrian citizen after a successful background check.

Carrying a taser in public requires a separate Waffenpass. As with the UK and Ireland, only members of law enforcement are allowed to legally own a taser. Since April , tasers can be legally purchased by persons 18 and older, but can only be carried by persons with a firearm carry permit Waffenschein , which is only issued under very restricted conditions. In , Germany approved a pilot project allowing individual states to issue tasers to their SEK teams police tactical units ; by , 13 out of 16 states had done so.

A number of states have also provided a limited number of tasers to their general police forces. Some states, such as Berlin, have use of force guidelines that only permit taser use where firearm use would also be justified.

Under current law, the Federal Police is not authorized to use tasers. The Bundeswehr German armed forces does not issue tasers nor are they used in training. Under the Firearms Act of , tasers, pepper spray and stun guns are illegal to possess or purchase in Ireland, even with a valid firearms certificate.

Tasers are legal for civilians to own, provided they possess a valid permit under the Customs Act. Tasers are classified as weapons under Federal Law No.

Tasers have been in use by UK police forces since , and require 18 hours of initial training, followed by six hours of annual top-up training, in order for an officer to be allowed to use one.

The boy’s mother told CNN that the three officers involved probably found it easier not to reason with her child. The Miami-Dade County Police reported that the girl had started to run into traffic and that the TASER device was deployed to stop her from being hit by cars or causing an automobile accident.

Police claim that the use of TASER conducted energy weapons on smaller subjects and elderly subjects is safer than alternative methods of subduing suspects, alleging that striking them or falling on them will cause much more injury than a TASER device, because the device is designed to only cause the contraction of muscles. Critics counter that TASER devices may interact with pre-existing medical complications such as medications, and may even contribute to someone’s death as a result.

Critics also suggest that using a TASER conducted electrical weapon on a minor, particularly a young child, is effectively cruel and abusive punishment , or unnecessary. A report from a meeting of the United Nations Committee Against Torture states that “The Committee was worried that the use of TASER X26 weapons, provoking extreme pain, constituted a form of torture , and that in certain cases it could also cause death, as shown by several reliable studies and by certain cases that had happened after practical use.

Maurice Cunningham of South Carolina, while an inmate at the Lancaster County Detention Center, [90] [91] was subjected to continuous shock for 2 minutes 49 seconds, which a medical examiner said caused cardiac arrhythmia and his subsequent death. He was 29 years old and had no alcohol or drugs in his system. When it’s over, it’s over. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Electroshock weapon used by police. For the record producer, see Tazer musician. For the band, see Tazers.

For other uses, see Taser disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article may be written from a fan’s point of view , rather than a neutral point of view.

Please clean it up to conform to a higher standard of quality, and to make it neutral in tone. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Taser safety issues. Main article: Excited delirium.

See also: Taser safety issues. This section needs attention from an expert in medicine. The specific problem is: is it real? This appears to contradict main article about the consensus, and omits possible conflicts of interest. WikiProject Medicine may be able to help recruit an expert.

June No data collected Learn more about how developers declare collection. Data is encrypted in transit. You can request that data be deleted. I have an outdated phone so i struggle a lot when it comes to apps and storage. Most apps are not compatible for my phone and often lead to malfunction, but this app has given me no problems.

I am able to load and receive school documents, easily. Thanks sooo much. This app is a life saver. We’d love to hear your app’s favorite response. We regularly upgrade and create new features that are useful for you. Great if you could share it with your loved ones. Hope you always feel satisfied when using the application. Have a nice day. I have no problem with the app Hi, thank you for the comment. Grant, S. Variant of transcription factor 7-like 2 TCF7L2 gene confers risk of type 2 diabetes.

Mechanisms by which common variants in the TCF7L2 gene increase risk of type 2 diabetes. Sladek, R. A genome-wide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes.

Nature , — Saxena, R. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels. Science , — Morris, A. Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.

Flannick, J. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes. Common variant in MTNR1B associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired early insulin secretion. Rosengren, A. Overexpression of alpha2A-adrenergic receptors contributes to type 2 diabetes. Tang, Y. Transl Med. These paper provides an example in which a genetic finding in an animal model of diabetes has been translated into a drug target in humans, the ADRA2A gene.

De Jesus, D. Epigenetic modifiers of islet function and mass. Trends Endocrinol. Ozcan, S. Clinical risk factors, DNA variants, and the development of type 2 diabetes. This paper presents a genetic explanation for the development of T2DM. Travers, M. Insights into the molecular mechanism for type 2 diabetes susceptibility at the KCNQ1 locus from temporal changes in imprinting status in human islets. Diabetes 62 , — Gulli, G. Diabetes 41 , — Martin, B.

Role of glucose and insulin resistance in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: results of a year follow-up study. Metabolism 63 , — Kahn, S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future.

Muller, D. Insulin response during the oral glucose tolerance test: the role of age, sex, body fat and the pattern of fat distribution. Aging Milano 8 , 13—21 CAS Google Scholar. Nauck, M. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes: what is up, what is down? Diabetologia 54 , 10—18 Madsbad, S. The role of glucagon-like peptide-1 impairment in obesity and potential therapeutic implications. Diabetes Obes. Bays, H.

Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor agonists provide a rational therapeutic approach.

Perry, R. The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature , 84—91 An excellent review of the specific lipid varieties and the molecular events through which they cause insulin resistance in the liver. Bensellam, M. Ritzel, R. Human islet amyloid polypeptide oligomers disrupt cell coupling, induce apoptosis, and impair insulin secretion in isolated human islets.

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Cell Transplant. Rahier, J. Marselli, L. Are we overestimating the loss of beta cells in type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia 57 , — Marchetti, P. The endoplasmic reticulum in pancreatic beta cells of type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetologia 50 , — Autophagy and the pancreatic beta-cell in human type 2 diabetes. Autophagy 5 , — Gupta, D. Islet amyloid and type 2 diabetes: overproduction or inadequate clearance and detoxification?

Mezza, T. Insulin resistance alters islet morphology in nondiabetic humans. Diabetes 63 , — Deng, S. Structural and functional abnormalities in the islets isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes 53 , — Igoillo-Esteve, M. Palmitate induces a pro-inflammatory response in human pancreatic islets that mimics CCL2 expression by beta cells in type 2 diabetes. Giacca, A. Halban, P. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study.

Diabetologia 54 , — Michaliszyn, S. Mari, A. Mechanisms of the incretin effect in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and patients with type 2 diabetes. Holst, J. Loss of incretin effect is a specific, important, and early characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Care 34 , S—S Camastra, S. Cell Metab. Shulman, G. Quantitation of muscle glycogen synthesis in normal subjects and subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This study demonstrated that defects in insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthesis was the major factor responsible for whole-body insulin resistance in patients with T2DM. Glucose and free fatty acid metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Evidence for multiple sites of insulin resistance. Guilherme, A. Adipocyte dysfunctions linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Cell Biol. Gerich, J. Renal gluconeogenesis: its importance in human glucose homeostasis. Diabetes Care 24 , — Honka, H. Validation of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography PET for the measurement of intestinal metabolism in pigs, and evidence of intestinal insulin resistance in patients with morbid obesity.

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Magnusson, I. Increased rate of gluconeogenesis in type II diabetes mellitus. A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study. This study demonstrated that increased rates of hepatic glucose production in patients with poorly controlled T2DM could entirely be attributed to increased rates of gluconeogenesis.

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Barrett, E. Insulin regulates its own delivery to skeletal muscle by feed-forward actions on the vasculature. Hemodynamic actions of insulin. Dissection of the insulin signaling pathway via quantitative phosphoproteomics. Cusi, K. Insulin resistance differentially affects the PI 3-kinase- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling in human muscle. Krook, A. Characterization of signal transduction and glucose transport in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients.

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Reversal of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia by moderate weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Lara-Castro, C. Intracellular lipid accumulation in liver and muscle and the insulin resistance syndrome. Yu, C. Mechanism by which fatty acids inhibit insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 IRS-1 -associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in muscle. Bezy, O. Mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Choi, C. Suppression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 DGAT2 , but not DGAT1 , with antisense oligonucleotides reverses diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

Morino, K. Reduced mitochondrial density and increased IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in muscle of insulin-resistant offspring of type 2 diabetic parents. Szendroedi, J. Larsen, P. On ceramides, other sphingolipids and impaired glucose homeostasis.

Turpin, S. Obesity-induced CerS6-dependent C ceramide production promotes weight gain and glucose intolerance. Cantley, J. Patti, M. The role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial dysfunction as a causative factor in the development of insulin resistance in T2DM is reviewed. Ritov, V. Deficiency of subsarcolemmal mitochondria in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 54 , 8—14 Mitochondrial dysfunction in the elderly: possible role in insulin resistance.

Impaired mitochondrial activity in the insulin-resistant offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. Mogensen, M. Mitochondrial respiration is decreased in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 56 , — Decreased insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis and phosphate transport in muscle of insulin-resistant offspring of type 2 diabetic parents. Wang, C. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to impairment of insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion in adipocytes.

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Common inhibitory serine sites phosphorylated by IRS-1 kinases, triggered by insulin and inducers of insulin resistance. Sengupta, S. Regulation of the mTOR complex 1 pathway by nutrients, growth factors, and stress. Cell 40 , — Shah, O.

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